Earthquake and Tsunami
On Tuesday, April 1, 2014, at 8:46 p.m. local time in Chile, a subduction earthquake of Mw 8.2 occurred about 100km northwest of the city of Iquique, where the Nazca plate subducts beneath the South American plate. This earthquake triggered a tsunami, which hit coastal areas in northern Chile. A joint Japan–Chile team conducted a post-tsunami field survey to measure the height of the tsunami traces and to investigate the damage caused by the earthquake and tsunami. Based on measurements of the tsunami traces, it is estimated that a tsunami 3–4m in height hit the coast from Arica, which is near the border between Chile and Peru, to Patache, south of Iquique, a straight-line distance of approximately 260km. The tsunami caused only minor inundations near shorelines, and caused no damage to buildings because living spaces were higher than the tsunami run-up height. Seismic damage was more extensive than that caused by the tsunami, especially in Iquique, and included the destruction of houses, buildings, and other infrastructure. It also ignited fires. In the Port of Iquique, a wharf, before earthquake-resistant improvements were implemented, was destroyed by the strong ground motions that resulted from the earthquake.